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VIRTUAL LIBRARY

Copyright Restrictions

Links to Online Materials

While searching the NCJRS Abstracts Database, you may encounter links to online materials. Online Government information accessed through the NCJRS Abstracts Database is in the public domain. This information may be freely distributed and copied, but in any subsequent use the authoring agency should be cited and given appropriate acknowledgement. Materials authored or published by other, non-Government organizations may be protected by U.S. and foreign copyright laws. These links are provided for the convenience of Internet access. NCJRS does not hold the copyrights for these materials. Transmission or reproduction of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use as defined in the copyright laws requires the written permission of the copyright owners. It is the responsibility of the user to examine the copyright and licensing restrictions of linked pages and to secure all necessary permission if further use of these materials is desired.

Protected Materials

Many items contained in the NCJRS Abstracts Database are available in their original form from the NCJRS Virtual Library via Interlibrary Loan. NCJRS does not hold copyright or reprint permission for these materials and cannot provide online or photocopy access to these documents. If these materials are borrowed from the NCJRS Virtual Library, it is the responsibility of the user to acquire copyright permission from the publisher for further use of the material. Most of these materials are available directly from the document publishers. When it’s available, NCJRS provides the publisher URL in the Abstracts Database record.

Photocopy/PDF Materials

Some items contained in the NCJRS Abstracts Database are available from the NCJRS Virtual Library Photocopy/PDF Service. NCJRS has been granted reproduction rights only for single photocopy orders for these materials. If these materials are acquired from the NCJRS Virtual Library, it is the responsibility of the user to obtain copyright permission from the publisher for further use of the material.

Additionally, special exceptions are made for requests that comply with Fair Use criteria (17 USC 107). The Fair Use clause (17 USC 107) allows for reproduction of particular works for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Four factors are considered in determining whether or not a particular request complies with the Fair Use clause:

  1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes.

  2. The nature of the copyrighted work.

  3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole.

  4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work.

Fair Use requests received by NCJRS are evaluated against these four factors and either approved or rejected. To place a Fair Use request simply email, mail, or fax your request to the NCJRS Virtual Library clearly citing the document and stating the purpose of the request (i.e. research, scholarship, teaching, etc.). NCJRS Virtual Library staff will promptly respond to your request and advise you on how to proceed.

Under no circumstances does receiving a loan or photocopy from NCJRS waive copyright. Copyright protects the particular way an author has expressed themselves, it does not extend to ideas, systems, or factual information conveyed in the work. All subsequent use of the materials must be approved by the copyright holder, normally the author or publisher of a document, and cannot be authorized by NCJRS. Title 17, Section 108 absolves library institutions of all subsequent violations and places the responsibility of obtaining copyright permission for future use on the patron. Acknowledging the source of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission.